Modern approaches to describing complex adaptive systems need to account for nonlinear feedbacks, non-equilibrium dynamics, discontinuities and break points, collective phenomena, systemic transitions, behavioral dynamics, as well as multi-level and multi-scale interactions among processes and agents.
Ecology is the quintessential systems science, dealing with such challenges in a holistic way. This approach is complemented by studies of adaptation and evolution to account for the ubiquitous capacity of agents to alter their features and interactions in response to environmental change.
Applied mathematics and theoretical physics also contribute advanced tools to the mix of methodologies that is characteristic of EEP’s research.
Last edited: 22 May 2014
International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)
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