05 January 2012

A journal paper documenting the GAINS methodology

A full description of the current GAINS integrated assessment framework has been published in Environmental Modelling & Software

The paper describes the methodological approach of the GAINS model and its components. It presents a recent policy analysis that explores the likely future development of emissions and air quality in Europe in the absence of further policy measures, and assesses the potential and costs for further environmental improvements. To inform the forthcoming negotiations on the revision of the Gothenburg Protocol of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, the paper discusses the implications of alternative formulations of environmental policy targets on a cost-effective allocation of further mitigation measures.

Amann M, Bertok I, Borken-Kleefeld J, Cofala J, Heyes C, Höglund-Isaksson L, Klimont Z, Nguyen B, Posch M, Rafaj P, Sandler R, Schöpp W, Wagner F, Winiwarter W. (2011):
Cost-effective control of air quality and greenhouse gases in Europe: Modeling and policy applications.
Environmental Modelling & Software, 26(12):1489-1501 (December 2011) (Published online 15 September 2011) [doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2011.07.012]

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Last edited: 13 January 2014


Markus Amann

Program Director

Air Quality and Greenhouse Gases

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International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)
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