Many air pollutants and GHGs have common sources, and can interact in the atmosphere. Alone or together, they produce a variety of environmental effects at different scales. The IIASA Greenhouse gas – Air pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) model aims to minimize the negative effects of atmospheric pollution and GHGs on human health, ecosystems, and climate change without cost to economic development.
GAINS considers about 3,500 end-of-pipe measures for reducing emissions of eight major air pollutants, and 350 options to reduce CO2 through structural changes. It assesses emissions on a medium-term time horizon in five year intervals through 2030. In “scenario analysis” mode GAINS provide estimates of regional costs and environmental benefits of alternative emission control strategies. In “optimization” mode it identifies cost-optimal allocations of emission reductions to achieve specific targets like GHG emissions ceilings.
In 2013 the GAINS model achieved global coverage. GAINS is implemented online for 43 countries in Europe, including the European part of Russia. There is a GAINS-Asia model and dedicated online versions for China and South Asia. A special version of GAINS has been developed for online comparison of GHG mitigation efforts among the Kyoto Protocol Annex-I countries to support negotiations under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change.
Last edited: 16 February 2017
Simultaneously reducing air pollution and greenhouse gases (PDF)
International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)
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