Read how IIASA works with research partners across the globe to deliver world-class research.
Laixiang Sun is a senior researcher and economist with the Water (WAT) Program at IIASA. He is also a Professor at the Department of Geographical Sciences, University of Maryland, USA; a Research professor at the Department of Financial and Management Studies, School of Oriental and African Studies, the University of London; a visiting research professor at the Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research (IGSNRR) and China Center for Agricultural Policy (CCAP), Chinese Academy of Sciences; and a senior research fellow at the Guanghua School of Management at Peking University, China. In February 2010, he was conferred the award of Fellow/Academician by the Academy of Social Sciences (AcSS) in the United Kingdom, and in June 2005, he was awarded the title of "Outstanding Overseas Chinese Scholar" by the Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Professor Sun has been a principal investigator and/or leading scientist in a number of research projects sponsored by the European Commission; the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC), the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC), Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO), the British Academy, the Royal Academy of Engineering, and the Royal Society in the UK; the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the USA; the Chinese Academy of Sciences and National Natural Sciences Foundation in China. He has produced more than 130 research publications in regional sciences, integrated modeling, ecological, agricultural, and environmental management, comparative economics and transition economics, and business management.
During 1996-2002, he was also affiliated with the United Nations University (UNU), WIDER, in Helsinki, Finland, as a consultant researcher, and then a Project Director on property rights regimes, microeconomic incentives, and development. In the years between 1985 and 1991, Prof Sun was a lecturer and later also Associate Chairman of the Department of Economic Management (Guanghua School of Management since 1995) at Peking University in Beijing, China.
He was a core team member and senior researcher in the State System Reform Commission's priority project: A program for China's economic institutional reform in 1988-95, which won the Sun Yefang prize in economics in 1988, awarded by the China Society of Economics. Prof. Sun was also a core team member and senior researcher in two other state programs, namely, the welfare models of the Chinese Society for the Ministry of Labor and Personnel Administration, and labor force mobility and economic development for the Institute of Economic Research, State Planning Commission.
Prof. Sun received his PhD in economics in 1997 from the International Institute of Social Studies of the Erasmus University Rotterdam in the Hague, and his MSc (1985) and BSc (1982) in mathematics from Peking University.
Last update: 08-AUG-2017
Zhong H, Sun L, Fischer G, Tian Z, van Velthuizen H, & Liang Z (2017). Mission Impossible? Maintaining regional grain production level and recovering local groundwater table by cropping system adaptation across the North China Plain. Agricultural Water Management 193: 1-12. DOI:10.1016/j.agwat.2017.07.014.
White DJ, Hubacek K, Feng K, Sun L, Meng B, & xyli (2017). The Water-Energy-Food Nexus in East Asia: A tele-connected value chain analysis using inter-regional input-output analysis. Applied Energy DOI:10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.05.159. (In Press)
Tian Z, Niu Y, Fan D, Sun L, Fischer G, Zhong H, Deng J, & Tubiello FN (2017). Maintaining rice production while mitigating methane and nitrous oxide emissions from paddy fields in China: Evaluating tradeoffs by using coupled agricultural systems models. Agricultural Systems DOI:10.1016/j.agsy.2017.04.006. (In Press)
Yang X, Tian Z, Sun L, Chen B, Tubiello F, & Xu Y (2017). The impacts of increased heat stress events on wheat yield under climate change in China. Climatic Change 140 (3): 605-620. DOI:10.1007/s10584-016-1866-z.
Fan D, Ding Q, Tian Z, Sun L, & Fischer G (2017). A cross-scale model coupling approach to simulate the risk-reduction effect of natural adaptation on soybean production under climate change. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal 23 (3): 426-440. DOI:10.1080/10807039.2016.1221308.
Liang Z, Tian Z, Sun L, Feng K, Zhong H, Gu T, & Liu X (2016). Heat wave, electricity rationing, and trade-offs between environmental gains and economic losses: The example of Shanghai. Applied Energy 184: 951-959. DOI:10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.06.045.
Yang H, Dobbie S, Ramirez-Villegas J, Feng K, Challinor AJ, Chen B, Gao Y, Lee L, et al. (2016). Potential negative consequences of geoengineering on crop production: A study of Indian groundnut. Geophysical Research Letters 43 (22): 786-795. DOI:10.1002/2016GL071209.
Sun L, Lee IH, & Hong E (2016). Does foreign direct investment stimulate new firm creation? In search of spillovers through industrial and geographical linkages. Small Business Economics: 1-19. DOI:10.1007/s11187-016-9803-0.
Yan J, Yang Z, Li Z, Li X, Xin L, & Sun L (2016). Drivers of cropland abandonment in mountainous areas: A household decision model on farming scale in Southwest China. Land Use Policy 57: 459-469. DOI:10.1016/j.landusepol.2016.06.014.
Yu Y, Feng K, Hubacek K, & Sun L (2016). Global Implications of China's Future Food Consumption. Journal of Industrial Ecology 20 (3): 593-602. DOI:10.1111/jiec.12392.
Feng K, Davis SJ, Sun L, & Hubacek Kl (2016). Correspondence: Reply to ‘Reassessing the contribution of natural gas to US CO2 emission reductions since 2007’. Nature Communications 7: art.no.10693. DOI:10.1038/ncomms10693.
Duarte R, Feng K, Hubacek K, Sanchez-Choliz J, Sarasa C, & Sun L (2015). Modeling the carbon consequences of pro-environmental consumer behavior. Applied Energy 184: 1207-1216. DOI:10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.09.101.
Prell C, Sun L, Feng K, & Myroniuk T W (2015). Inequalities in Global Trade: A Cross-Country Comparison of Trade Network Position, Economic Wealth, Pollution and Mortality. PLoS ONE 10 (12): e0144453. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0144453.
White DJ, Feng K, Sun L, & Hubacek K (2015). A hydro-economic MRIO analysis of the Haihe River Basin's water footprint and water stress. Ecological Modelling 318: 157-167. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2015.01.017.
Prell C & Sun L (2015). Unequal carbon exchanges: understanding pollution embodied in global trade. Environmental Sociology 1 (4): 256-267. DOI:10.1080/23251042.2015.1114208.
Wang X, Li X, Fischer G, Sun L, Tan M, Xin l, & Liang Z (2015). Impact of the changing area sown to winter wheat on crop water footprint in the North China Plain. Ecological Indicators 57: 100-109. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolind.2015.04.023.
Tian Z, Liang Z, Sun L, Zhong H, Qiu H, Fischer G, & Zhao S (2015). Agriculture under climate change in China: mitigate the risks by grasping the emerging opportunities. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 21 (5): 1259-1276. DOI:10.1080/10807039.2014.955392.
Fan D, Ding Q, Tian Z, Sun L, & Fischer G (2015). Simulating the adaptive measures of soybean production to climate change in China: based on cross-scale model coupling. In: Emerging Economies, Risk and Development, and Intelligent Technology: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Risk Analysis and Crisis Response, June 1-3, 2015, Tangier, Morocco.
Tian Z, Niu Y, Sun L, Li C, Liu C, & Fan D (2015). China's rice field greenhouse gas emission under climate change based on DNDC model simulation. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology 26 (3): 793-799.
Feng K, Hubacek K, Sun L, & Liu Z (2014). Consumption-based CO2 accounting of China's megacities: The case of Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai and Chongqing. Ecological Indicators 47: 26-31. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolind.2014.04.045.
Tian Z, Zhong H, Sun L, Fischer G, van Velthuizen HT, & Liang Z (2014). Improving performance of Agro-Ecological Zone (AEZ) modeling by cross-scale model coupling: An application to japonica rice production in Northeast China. Ecological Modelling 290: 155-164. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2013.11.020.
Tian Z, Yang X, Sun L, Fischer G, Liang Z, & Pan J (2014). Agroclimatic conditions in China under climate change scenarios projected from regional climate models. International Journal of Climatology 34 (9): 2988-3000. DOI:10.1002/joc.3892.
Qiu H, Sun L, Xu X, Cai Y, & Bai J (2014). Potentials of crop residues for commercial energy production in China: A geographic and economic analysis. Biomass and Bioenergy 64: 110-123. DOI:10.1016/j.biombioe.2014.03.055.
Feng K, Davis SJ, Sun L, Li X, Guan D, Liu W, Liu Z, & Hubacek K (2013). Outsourcing CO2 within China. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110 (28): 11654-11659. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1219918110.
Tian Z, Liang Z, Zhong H, Qiu H, Sun L, Fischer G, van Velthuizen HT, Cao G-Y, et al. (2013). Upside potential versus downside risk in Chinese agriculture under climate change. In: Intelligent Systems and Decision Making for Risk Analysis and Crisis Response: Proceedings, RACR 2013, 27-29 August 2013.
Tian Z, Zhong H, Shi R, Sun L, Fischer G, & Liang Z (2012). Estimating potential yield of wheat production in China based on cross-scale data-model fusion. Frontiers of Earth Science 6 (4): 364-372. DOI:10.1007/s11707-012-0332-0.
Ermolieva T, Fischer G, Hizsnyik E, Prieler S, Sun L, Toth G, van Velthuizen HT, & Wiberg D (2012). Land Use Change and Agriculture Program: MetaData v.1.0 - Main models, databases, tools (covering period 2005-2011). IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria (March 2012)
Hong E & Sun L (2011). Foreign direct investment and total factor productivity in China: A spatial dynamic panel analysis. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics 73 (6): 771-791. DOI:10.1111/j.1468-0084.2011.00672.x.
Tang X, Yang X, Tian Z, Fischer G, Sun L, & Pan J (2011). Impacts of climate change on agro-climatic resources in China. Resources Science 33 (10): 1962-1968.
Fischer G, Ermolieva T, & Sun L (2010). Planning sustainable agricultural development under risks. In: Coping with Uncertainty: Robust Solutions. Eds. Marti, K., Ermoliev, Y. & Makowski, M., Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-642-03734-4 DOI:10.1007/978-3-642-03735-1_10.
Li T, Sun L, & Zou L (2009). State ownership and corporate performance: A quantile regression analysis of Chinese listed companies. China Economic Review 20 (4): 703-716. DOI:10.1016/j.chieco.2009.05.006.
Fischer G, Ermolieva T, Ermoliev Y, & Sun L (2009). Risk-adjusted approaches for planning sustainable agricultural development. Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment 23 (4): 441-450. DOI:10.1007/s00477-008-0231-9.
Pesque-Cela V, Tao R, Liu Y, & Sun L (2009). Challenging, complementing or assuming 'the Mandate of Heaven'? Political distrust and the rise of self-governing social organizations in rural China. Journal of Comparative Economics 37 (1): 151-168. DOI:10.1016/j.jce.2008.08.004.
Fischer G, Cao G-Y, Ermolieva T, & Sun L (2008). Urbanization and livestock production projection: An approach to healthy and environmental risks. Population and Development 14 (6): 1668-1674.
Fischer G, Huang J, Keyzer MA, Qiu H, Sun L, & van Veen VCM (2007). China’s agricultural prospects and challenges. Report on scenario simulations until 2030 with the Chinagro welfare model covering national, regional and county level. Centre for World Food Studies, VU University Amsterdam
Fischer G, Ermolieva T, Ermoliev Y, & Sun L (2007). Integrated risk management approaches for planning sustainable agriculture. In: Advances in Studies on Risk Analysis and Crisis Response. Eds. Huang, C., Frey, C. & Feng, J., Paris: Atlantis Press.
Hong E & Sun L (2007). Dynamics of Internationalization and Outward Investment: Chinese Corporations' Strategies. IIASA Research Report (Reprint). IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria: RP-07-009. Reprinted from The China Quarterly, 187:610-634 (September 2006).
Hubacek K & Sun L (2007). Economic and Societal Changes in China and their Effects on Water Use. IIASA Research Report (Reprint). IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria: RP-07-008. Reprinted from Journal of Industrial Ecology, 9(1-2):187-200 .
Sun L (2007). Ownership Reform in China's Township and Village Enterprises. IIASA Research Report (Reprint). IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria: RP-07-011. Reprinted from Exit the Dragon? Privatization and State Control in China, Stephen Green & Guy S. Liu (eds), Chapter 5, Chatham House/Backwell Publishing, Oxford, UK 
Hong E & Sun L (2006). Dynamics of internationalization and outward investment: Chinese corporations' strategies. The China Quarterly 187: 610-634. DOI:10.1017/S0305741006000403.
Sun L (2005). Ownership reform in china's township and village enterprises. In: Exit the dragon? Privatization and State Ownership in China. Eds. Green, S. & Liu, G., London: Balckwell Publishing.
Sun L, Hubacek K, & Guan D (2005). An analysis of China's water problems: A long-term perspective. In: Handbook of Sustainability Research. Eds. Filho, W. Lea, Germany: Frankfurt Peter Lang Scientific Publishers. ISBN 3-631-52606-7
Liu H & Sun L (2004). Beyond phase-out of quota in textile and clothing trading: WTO-plus rules and the case of US safeguards against Chinese exports in 2003. Asia Pacific Development Journal 11 (1): 49-71.
Sun L, Giljum S, & Hubacek K (2004). Beyond the simple material balance: A reply to Sangwong Suh's note on physical input-output analysis. Ecological Economics 48 (1): 19-22. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2003.09.004.
Sun L (2003). Ownership and Governance of Enterprises: Recent Innovative Developments. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9781403916334
Sun L (2003). Evolving and functioning mechanisms of employee stock ownership in China’s township and village enterprises. In: Ownership and Governance of Enterprises. pp. 159-180 United Kingdom: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-4039-4390-3 DOI:10.1057/9781403943903_6.
Sun L (2003). Ownership reform in the absence of crisis: China's township, village and private enterprises in the 1990s. In: Great Hopes and Mixed Achievements: SMEs in Transitional Economies. Eds. McIntyre, R. & Dallago, B., Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Sun L (2003). An evolving diversity of ownership forms and implications for the reforms of state-owned enterprises. In: Achieving High Growth: Experience of Transitional Economies in East Asia. Eds. Drysdale, P., Huang, Y. & Kawai, M., London: Routledge.
Sun L, Fischer G, & Zhang F (2003). The role of government in combating desertification. In: Proceedings of the China-EU Workshop on Integrated Approach to Combat Desertification, 15-17 October 2003, Beijing, P.R. China pp 171-184 (English version).
Sun L (2002). Fading out of local government ownership: Recent ownership reform in China's township and village enterprises. Economic Systems 26 (3): 249-269. DOI:10.1016/S0939-3625(02)00043-2.
Albersen P, Fischer G, Keyzer MA, & Sun L (2002). Estimation of Agricultural Production Relations in the LUC Model for China. IIASA Research Report. IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria: RR-02-003
Sun L (2002). Adaptive efficiency and evolving diversity of enterprise ownership and governance: Introduction to the symposium. Journal of Comparative Economics 30 (4): 754-758.
Sun L (2002). Unconventional ownership and governance forms of the firm. Journal of Comparative Economics 30 (4): 754-863.
Sun L, Albersen P, Fischer G, & Keyzer MA (2002). Towards estimating agricultural production relations for China. In: Dilemmas of China's Growth in the Twenty-First Century. Eds. Song, L., Canberra: Asia Pacific Press.
Sun L & Wuyts M (2002). The employment relation in industrial transition: The case of China. In: International Development: Challenges for a World in Transition. Chapter 3: Open University course U213. Transitions volume.
Hubacek K & Sun L (2001). A scenario analysis of China's land use and land cover change: Incorporating biophysical information into input-output modeling. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics 12 (4): 367-397. DOI:10.1016/S0954-349X(01)00029-7.
Sun L (2001). Price scissors, rationing, and coercion: An extended framework for understanding primitive socialist accumulation. Economic Change and Restructuring 34 (3): 195-213. DOI:10.1023/A:1011871120813.
Fischer G & Sun L (2001). Model-based analysis of future land-use development in China. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 85 (1-3): 163-176. DOI:10.1016/S0167-8809(01)00182-7.
Sun L (2001). Aggregate Behavior of Investment in China, 1953-96: An Analysis of Investment Hunger and Fluctuation. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9780333948095
Hubacek K & Sun L (2001). A Scenario Analysis of China's Land Use and Land Cover Change: Incorporating Biophysical Information into Input-Output Modeling. IIASA Research Report (Reprint). IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria: RR-01-013. Reprinted from Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, 12:367-397 .
Sun L (2001). Aggregate Behaviour of Investment in China, 1953–96. An Analysis of Investment Hunger and Fluctuation. UK: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-51388-4 DOI:10.1057/9780230513884.
Sun L (2001). Agricultural Constraint to the Insatiable Investment Demand. In: Aggregate Behaviour of Investment in China, 1953–96. pp. 112-161 UK: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-51388-4 DOI:10.1057/9780230513884_4.
Sun L (2001). Conclusions (Aggregate Behaviour of Investment in China, 1953–96). In: Aggregate Behaviour of Investment in China, 1953–96. pp. 221-245 UK: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-51388-4 DOI:10.1057/9780230513884_7.
Sun L (2001). Energy as the Representative of Producer Goods Constraints. In: Aggregate Behaviour of Investment in China, 1953–96. pp. 162-187 UK: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-51388-4 DOI:10.1057/9780230513884_5.
Sun L (2001). Estimating Investment Functions Based on Cointegration. In: Aggregate Behaviour of Investment in China, 1953–96. pp. 188-220 UK: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-51388-4 DOI:10.1057/9780230513884_6.
Sun L (2001). Integrating Selected Theories Based on China’s Experiences. In: Aggregate Behaviour of Investment in China, 1953–96. pp. 29-70 UK: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-51388-4 DOI:10.1057/9780230513884_2.
Sun L (2001). Introduction (Aggregate Behaviour of Investment in China, 1953–96). In: Aggregate Behaviour of Investment in China, 1953–96. pp. 1-28 UK: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-51388-4 DOI:10.1057/9780230513884_1.
Sun L (2001). The State Investment System and its Response to Reform. In: Aggregate Behaviour of Investment in China, 1953–96. pp. 71-111 UK: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-51388-4 DOI:10.1057/9780230513884_3.
Sun L (2001). Unorthodox ownership and governance structures in transitional East Asia. In: Transition and Institutions: The Experience of Slow and Late Reformers. Eds. Cornia, G.A. & Popov, V., Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Sun L & Albersen P (2001). Land degradation as a transformation process in an intertemporal welfare optimization framework. In: Economic Policy and Sustainable Land Use: Recent Advances in Quantitative Analyses for Developing Countries. Eds. Heerink, N., Keulen, H. van & Kuiper, M., Heidelberg: Physika-Verlag. ISBN 3-7908-1351-6
Albersen P, Fischer G, Keyzer MA, & Sun L (2000). Estimation of Agricultural Production Relations in the LUC Model for China. IIASA Interim Report. IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria: IR-00-027
Sun L (2000). Anticipatory ownership reform driven by competition: China's township - Village and private enterprises in the 1990s. Comparative Economic Studies 42 (3): 49-75. DOI:10.1057/ces.2000.15.
Hubacek K & Sun L (2000). Land Use Change at the National and Regional Level in China: A Scenario Analysis Based on Input-Output Modeling. IIASA Interim Report. IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria: IR-00-053
Hubacek K & Sun L (2000). Dance with the increasing scarcity of land: A scenario analysis for China in 2025. IFAS-Forum: 9-16.
Sun L (2000). Anticipatory Ownership Reform Driven by Competition: China's Township-Village and Private Enterprises in the 1990s. IIASA Research Report (Reprint). IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria: RR-01-002. Reprinted from Comparative Economic Studies, XLII(3):49-75 [Fall 2000].
Sun L (2000). New Paradigms on Ownership of the Firm: A Comparative Analysis across Development Stages and Institutional and Technological Contexts. WIDER United Nations University (UNU/WIDER), Helsinki, Finland, Working Paper No. 192 (July) 
Sun L (2000). Price Scissors, Rationing, and Coercion: An Extended Framework for Understanding Primitive Socialist Accumulation. WIDER United Nations University (UNU/WIDER), Helsinki, Finland, Working Paper No. 186 (June) 
Zou L & Sun L (2000). Liability sharing as a mechanism to improve firms' investment and liquidation decisions. Journal of Comparative Economics 28 (4): 739-761.
Hubacek K & Sun L (1999). Land Use Change in China: A Scenario Analysis Based on Input- Output Modeling. IIASA Interim Report. IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria: IR-99-073
Perotti EC, Sun L, & Zhou L (1999). State-owned versus township and village enterprises in China. Comparative Economic Studies 41 (2): 151-179. DOI:10.1057/ces.1999.11.
Sun L (1999). The Evolutionary Dynamics of China's Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the 1990s. United Nations University: World Institute for Development Economics Research. ISBN 952-9520-91-3
Fischer G, Chen Y, & Sun L (1998). The Balance of Cultivated Land in China during 1988-1995. IIASA Interim Report. IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria: IR-98-047
Sun L (1998). Unorthodox ownership and governance structures in East Asia. MOCT-MOST : Economic Policy in Transitional Economies 8 (1): 33-62. DOI:10.1023/A:1009549923034.
Perotti EC, Sun L, & Zou L (1998). State-Owned versus Township and Village Enterprises in China. IIASA Research Report (Reprint). IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria: RR-99-011. Reprinted from Comparative Economic Studies, XLI(2-3):151-179 [Summer/Fall 1999] 
Perotti EC, Sun L, & Zou L (1998). State-Owned versus Township-Village Enterprises in China. Working Paper No. 150 (September), WIDER United Nations University
Sun L (1998). Estimating Investment Functions Based on Cointegration: The Case of China. IIASA Research Report (Reprint). IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria: RR-98-007. Reprinted from Journal of Comparative Economics, 26(1):175-191 [March 1998].
Sun L (1998). Estimating investment functions based on cointegration: The case of China. Journal of Comparative Economics 26 (1): 175-191. DOI:10.1006/jcec.1997.1501.
Sun L (1998). Unorthodox Ownership and Governance Structures in East Asia. IIASA Research Report (Reprint). IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria: RR-98-011. Reprinted from MOCT-MOST, 8(1):33-62 .
Zou L & Sun L (1998). A Theory of Risk Pooling and Voluntary Liquidation of Firms. iscussion Paper TI98-123/2, Tinbergen Institute
Sun L & Li X (1997). Driving Forces of Arable Land Conversion in China. IIASA Interim Report. IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria: IR-97-076
Sun L (1997). Emergence of Unorthodox Ownership and Governance Structures in East Asia: An Alternative Transition Path. WIDER Working Paper 38/1997 UNU-WIDER
Zou L & Sun L (1996). Interest rate policy and incentives of state-owned enterprises in the transitional China. Journal of Comparative Economics 23 (3): 292-318.
International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)
Schlossplatz 1, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria
Phone: (+43 2236) 807 0 Fax:(+43 2236) 71 313