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YSSP Scientific Coordinator Young Scientists Summer Program
Senior Research Scholar Advanced Systems Analysis
+43(0) 2236 807 605
Brian D. Fath is Professor in the Department of Biological Sciences at Towson University (Maryland, USA). He teaches courses in ecosystem ecology, environmental biology, networks, and human ecology and sustainability. Dr. Fath has also taught courses on ecological networks and modeling in Portugal, Croatia, Denmark, China, France, and Germany. He holds a Fulbright Distinguished Chair position at Parthenope University of Naples, Italy for spring 2012.
Dr. Fath first came to IIASA as a participant in the 1997 Young Scientists Summer Program (YSSP). Since 2002, he has been a summer Research Scholar within the Advanced Systems Analysis (ASA) Program. His work at IIASA contributes to ASA activities in environmental systems modeling, specifically in the area of integrated modeling (ecological-economic networks), and since 2011 he is co-scientific coordinator for the YSSP Program.
He has published around 100 research papers, reports, and book chapters in journals such as the Journal of Theoretical Biology, Ecological Modelling, BioSystems, Ecological Complexity, Environmental Modelling and Software, and Ecosystems. He co-authored the books A New Ecology: Systems Perspective and Ecological Modelling (4th edition) and is Associate Editor-in-Chief for Encyclopedia of Ecology. He is also Editor-in-Chief for the journal Ecological Modelling; President of the North American Chapter of International Society for Ecological Modelling; and Chair of Baltimore County Commission on Environmental Quality.
Dr. Fath graduated from Miami University, Ohio, USA in 1990 with degrees in physics and aeronautics. He completed an MS degree in environmental science at Ohio State University (1993) and earned a PhD in ecology from the University of Georgia in 1998. He was a Post-Doctoral Fellow at the University of Georgia (1998-2000) with Dr. Bruce Beck and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in Cincinnati (2000-2001).
Last update: 19-OCT-2011
Zhang Y, Wu Q, & Fath B (2018). Review of spatial analysis of urban carbon metabolism. Ecological Modelling 371: 18-24. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2018.01.005.
Patten BC & Fath B (2018). Notes from an introductory course on Field Systems Ecology. Ecological Modelling 368: 33-40. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2017.11.014.
Zhang Y, Wu Q, Wang X, Fath B, Liu G, Hao Y, & Li Y (2017). Analysis of the ecological relationships within the CO 2 transfer network created by global trade and its changes from 2001 to 2010. Journal of Cleaner Production 168: 1425-1435. DOI:10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.09.076.
Riera R, Rodríguez RA, Herrera AM, Delgado JD, & Fath BD (2017). Endorheic currents in ecology: an example of the effects from scientific specialization and interdisciplinary isolation. Interdisciplinary Science Reviews: 1-17. DOI:10.1080/03080188.2017.1371480. (In Press)
Banerjee A, Scharler UM, Fath BD, & Ray S (2017). Temporal variation of keystone species and their impact on system performance in a South African estuarine ecosystem. Ecological Modelling 363: 207-220. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2017.09.009.
Lopez-Maldonado Y, Batllori-Sampedro E, Binder CR, & Fath B (2017). Local groundwater balance model: stakeholders’ efforts to address groundwater monitoring and literacy. Hydrological Sciences Journal 62 (14): 2297-2312. DOI:10.1080/02626667.2017.1372857.
Haak DM, Fath B, Forbes VE, Martin DR, & Pope KL (2017). Coupling ecological and social network models to assess “transmission” and “contagion” of an aquatic invasive species. Journal of Environmental Management 190 (1): 243-251. DOI:10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.12.012.
Wang C, Bi J, & Fath B (2017). Effects of abiotic factors on ecosystem health of Taihu Lake, China based on eco-exergy theory. Scientific Reports 7: p. 42872. DOI:10.1038/srep42872.
Kharrazi A, Rovenskaya E, & Fath BD (2017). Network structure impacts global commodity trade growth and resilience. PLoS ONE 12 (2): e0171184. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0171184.
Zheng H, Fath BD, & Zhang Y (2017). An urban metabolism and carbon footprint analysis of the Jing-Jin-Ji regional agglomeration. Journal of Industrial Ecology 21 (1): 166-179. DOI:10.1111/jiec.12432.
Liu G, Yang Z, Fath BD, Shi L, & Ulgiati S (2017). Time and space model of urban pollution migration: Economy-energy-environment nexus network. Applied Energy 186: 96-114. DOI:10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.06.132.
Fath BD (2017). Systems ecology, energy networks, and a path to sustainability. International Journal of Design & Nature and Ecodynamics 12 (1): 1-15. DOI:10.2495/DNE-V12-N1-1-15.
Kharrazi A, Fath B, & Katzmair H (2016). Advancing Empirical Approaches to the Concept of Resilience: A Critical Examination of Panarchy, Ecological Information, and Statistical Evidence. Sustainability 8 (9): e935. DOI:10.3390/su8090935.
Zhang Y, Lu H, Fath B, Zheng H, Sun X, & Li Y (2016). A Network Flow Analysis of the Nitrogen Metabolism in Beijing, China. Environmental Science & Technology 50 (16): 8558-8567. DOI:10.1021/acs.est.6b00181.
Zhang Y, Lu H, Fath B, & Zheng H (2016). Modelling urban nitrogen metabolic processes based on ecological network analysis: A case of study in Beijing, China. Ecological Modelling 337: 29-38. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2016.06.001.
Yang S, Fath B, & Chen B (2016). Ecological network analysis of embodied particulate matter 2.5 – A case study of Beijing. Applied Energy 184: 882-888. DOI:10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.04.087.
Lu W, Su M, Fath BD, Zhang M, & Hao Y (2016). A systematic method of evaluation of the Chinese natural gas supply security. Applied Energy 165: 858-867. DOI:10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.12.120.
Xia L, Fath BD, Scharler UM, & Zhang Y (2016). Spatial variation in the ecological relationships among the components of Beijing's carbon metabolic system. Science of the Total Environment 544: 103-113. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.11.110.
Kharrazi A & Fath BD (2016). Measuring global oil trade dependencies: An application of the point-wise mutual information method. Energy Policy 88: 271-277. DOI:10.1016/j.enpol.2015.10.017.
Zhang Y, Xia L, Fath BD, Yang Z, Yin X, Su M, Liu G, & Li Y (2016). Development of a spatially explicit network model of urban metabolism and analysis of the distribution of ecological relationships: case study of Beijing, China. Journal of Cleaner Production 112 (5): 4304-4317. DOI:10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.06.052.
Yang S, Chen B, & Fath BD (2015). Trans-boundary total suspended particulate matter (TSPM) in urban ecosystems. Ecological Modelling 318: 59-63. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2014.10.006.
Fath B (2015). Sustainability of Complex Systems: Insights from Ecological Dynamics. In: Systems Analysis 2015 - A Conference in Celebration of Howard Raiffa, 11 -13 November, 2015, Laxenburg, Austria.
Zhang Y, Li J, Fath BD, Zheng H, & Xia L (2015). Analysis of urban carbon metabolic processes and a description of sectoral characteristics: A case study of Beijing. Ecological Modelling 316 (7651): 144-154. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2015.08.008.
Goerner S, Fiscus D, & Fath BD (2015). Using energy network science (ENS) to connect resilience with the larger story of systemic health and development. Emergence: Complexity and Organization 17 (3): 1-21. DOI:10.emerg/10.17357.3d5966bc59d8c23528089eb3304db847.
Hayha T, Franzese PP, Paletto A, & Fath BD (2015). Assessing, valuing, and mapping ecosystem services in Alpine forests. Ecosystem Services 14: 12-23. DOI:10.1016/j.ecoser.2015.03.001.
Jorgensen SE, Fath BD, Nielsen SN, Pulselli FM, Fiscus DA, & Bastianoni S (2015). Flourishing Within Limits to Growth: Following nature's way. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-1138842533 DOI:10.4324/9781315731445.
Fath BD, Dean CA, & Katzmair H (2015). Navigating the adaptive cycle: An approach to managing the resilience of social systems. Ecology and Society 20 (2) DOI:10.5751/ES-07467-200224.
Mukherjee J, Scharler UM, Fath BD, & Ray S (2015). Measuring sensitivity of robustness and network indices for an estuarine food web model under perturbations. Ecological Modelling 306: 160-173. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2014.10.027.
Zhang Y, Zheng H, & Fath BD (2015). Ecological network analysis of an industrial symbiosis system: A case study of the Shandong Lubei eco-industrial park. Ecological Modelling 306: 174-184. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2014.05.005.
Fath B (2015). Quantifying economic and ecological sustainability. Ocean & Coastal Management 108: 13-19. DOI:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2014.06.020.
Chen S, Chen B, & Fath BD (2015). Assessing the cumulative environmental impact of hydropower construction on river systems based on energy network model. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 42: 78-92. DOI:10.1016/j.rser.2014.10.017.
Burkhard B, Fath BD, Jorgensen SE, & Li BL (2015). Editorial: Use of ecological indicators in models. Ecological Modelling 295: 1-4. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2014.10.016.
Borrett SR, Fath BD, & Whipple SJ (2014). Introduction to the special issue "Systems Ecology: A Network Perspective and Retrospective". Ecological Modelling 293: 1-3. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2014.10.005.
Dean CA, Fath BD, & Chen B (2014). Indicators for an expanded business operations model to evaluate eco-smart corporate communities. Ecological Indicators 47: 137-148. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolind.2014.07.010.
Fang D, Fath BD, Chen B, & Scharler UM (2014). Network environ analysis for socio-economic water system. Ecological Indicators 47: 80-88. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolind.2014.04.046.
Fath BD (2014). Sustainable systems promote wholeness-extending transformations: The contributions of systems thinking. Ecological Modelling 293: 42-48. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2014.01.002.
Zhang Y, Zheng H, & Fath BD (2014). Analysis of the energy metabolism of urban socioeconomic sectors and the associated carbon footprints: Model development and a case study for Beijing. Energy Policy 73: 540-551. DOI:10.1016/j.enpol.2014.04.029.
Chen S, Chen B, & Fath BD (2014). Urban ecosystem modeling and global change: Potential for rational urban management and emissions mitigation. Environmental Pollution: 139-149. DOI:10.1016/j.envpol.2014.03.032.
Zhang Y, Liu H, & Fath BD (2014). Synergism analysis of an urban metabolic system: Model development and a case study for Beijing, China. Ecological Modelling 272: 188-197. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2013.10.003.
Zhang Y, Zheng H, Fath BD, Liu H, Yang Z, Liu G, & Su M (2014). Ecological network analysis of an urban metabolic system based on input-output tables: Model development and case study for Beijing. Science of the Total Environment 468-69: 642-653. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.08.047.
Su M, Fath BD, Yang Z, Chen B, & Liu G (2013). Ecosystem health pattern analysis of urban clusters based on emergy synthesis: Results and implication for management. Energy Policy 59: 600-613. DOI:10.1016/j.enpol.2013.04.015.
Kharrazi A, Rovenskaya E, Fath BD, Yarime M, & Kraines S (2013). Quantifying the sustainability of economic resource networks: An ecological information-based approach. Ecological Economics 90: 177-186. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2013.03.018.
Fath BD, Scharler UM, & Baird D (2013). Dependence of network metrics on model aggregation and throughflow calculations: Demonstration using the Sylt-Romo Bight Ecosystem. Ecological Modelling 252: 214-219. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2012.06.010.
Zhang J, Zhang Y, Yang Z, Fath BD, & Li S (2013). Estimation of energy-related carbon emissions in Beijing and factor decomposition analysis. Ecological Modelling 252: 258-265. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2012.04.008.
Bennett ND, Croke BFW, Guariso G, Guillaume JHA, Hamilton SH, Jakeman AJ, Marsili-Libelli S, Newham LTH, et al. (2013). Characterising performance of environmental models. Environmental Modelling & Software DOI:10.1016/j.envsoft.2012.09.011.
Chen S, Chen B, & Fath BD (2013). Ecological risk assessment on the system scale: A review of state-of-the-art models and future perspectives. Ecological Modelling 250: 25-33. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2012.10.015.
Seppelt R, Fath BD, Burkhard B, Fisher JL, Gret-Regamey A, Lautenbach S, Pert P, Hotes S, et al. (2012). Form follows function? Proposing a blueprint for ecosystem service assessments based on reviews and case studies. Ecological Indicators 21: 145-154. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolind.2011.09.003.
Dai J, Fath BD, & Chen B (2012). Constructing a network of the social-economic consumption system of China using extended exergy analysis. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16 (7): 4796-4808. DOI:10.1016/j.rser.2012.04.027.
Fiscus D, Fath BD, & Goerner S (2012). A tri-modal nature of life applied for actualizing a win-win human-environmental relation and sustainability. Emergence: Complexity and Organization 14 (3): 44-88.
Verissimo H, Neto JM, Teixeira H, Franco JN, Fath BD, Marques JC, & Patricio J (2012). Ability of benthic indicators to assess ecological quality in estuaries following management. Ecological Indicators 19: 130-143. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolind.2011.06.014.
Fath BD, Rovenskaya E, Veshchinskaya V, Dieckmann U, & Brannstrom A (2012). Ecological flow analysis of network collapse I: New methodology to investigate network collapse dynamics. In: iEMSs 2012: Managing Resources of a Limited Planet, 1-5 July 2012.
Rovenskaya E, Veshchinskaya V, Fath BD, Dieckmann U, & Brannstrom A (2012). Ecological flow analysis of network collapse II: Indicators of ecosystem level vulnerability. In: iEMSs 2012: Managing Resources of a Limited Planet, 1-5 July 2012.
Scharler UM & Fath BD (2012). Core network compartments: Relative importance of ecosystems players in moving energy through the system. In: iEMSs 2012: Managing Resources of a Limited Planet, 1-5 July 2012.
Cutlip L & Fath BD (2012). Relationship between carbon emissions and economic development: Case study of six countries. Environment, Development and Sustainability 14 (3): 433-453. DOI:10.1007/s10668-011-9328-2.
Su M & Fath BD (2012). Spatial distribution of urban ecosystem health in Guangzhou, China. Ecological Indicators 15 (1): 122-130. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolind.2011.09.040.
Fath BD (2012). Overview of Network Environ Analysis: A systems analysis technique for understanding complex ecological systems. Biologi Italiani 3: 20-27.
Dai J & Fath BD (2012). Constructing a Network of the Social-economic Consumption System of China Using Extended Energy Analysis. IIASA Interim Report. IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria: IR-12-002
Fath BD (2012). Analyzing ecological systems using Network Analysis. Ecological Questions 16: 77-86. DOI:10.12775/v10090-012-0008-0.
Zhang Y, Li S, Fath BD, Yang Z, & Yang N (2011). Analysis of an urban energy metabolic system: Comparison of simple and complex model results. Ecological Modelling 223 (1): 14-19. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2011.08.005.
Chen S, Fath BD, & Chen B (2011). Information-based Network Environ Analysis: A system perspective for ecological risk assessment. Ecological Indicators 11 (6): 1664-1672. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolind.2011.04.013.
Burkhard B, Fath BD, & Mueller F (2011). Adapting the adaptive cycle: Hypotheses on the development of ecosystem properties and services. Ecological Modelling 222 (16): 2878-2890. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2011.05.016.
Amjad M, Fath BD, & Rovenskaya E (2011). Ecological Network Model and Analysis for Rawal Lake, Pakistan. IIASA Interim Report. IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria: IR-11-023
Carpio OV & Fath BD (2011). Assessing the environmental impacts of urban growth using land use/land cover, water quality and health indicators: A case study of Arequipa, Peru. American Journal of Environmental Sciences 7 (2): 90-101. DOI:10.3844/ajessp.2011.90.101.
Chen S, Fath BD, Chen B, & Su M (2011). Evaluation of the changed properties of aquatic animals after dam construction using ecological network analysis. Procedia Environmental Sciences 5: 114-119. DOI:10.1016/j.proenv.2011.03.056.
Joergensen SE & Fath BD (2011). Fundamentals of Ecological Modelling: Applications in Environmental Management and Research. Amsterdam: Elsevier. ISBN 9780444535672
Fath BD, Jorgensen SE, & Scharler UM (2011). 9.03 - Ecological modeling in environmental management: History and applications. In: Treatise on Estuarine and Coastal Science. Eds. Wolanski, E & McLusky, D, Waltham: Academic Press. ISBN 9780080878850 DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-374711-2.00903-7.
Chen S, Fath BD, & Chen B (2010). Ecological risk assessment of hydropower dam construction based on ecological network analysis. Procedia Environmental Sciences 2: 725-728. DOI:10.1016/j.proenv.2010.10.083.
Chen S, Fath BD, & Chen B (2010). Information indices from ecological network analysis for urban metabolic system. Procedia Environmental Sciences 2: 720-724. DOI:10.1016/j.proenv.2010.10.082.
Fath BD, Zhang Y, Yang Z, & Li S (2010). Urban energy metabolism using ecological network analysis: Case study of four Chinese cities. In: Digital Proceedings of the 7th Biennial International Workshop "Advances in Energy Studies 2010", 19-21 October 2010.
Zhang Y, Yang Z, & Fath BD (2010). Ecological network analysis of an urban water metabolic system: Model development, and a case study for Beijing. Science of the Total Environment 408 (20): 4702-4711. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.06.019.
Zhang Y, Yang Z, Fath BD, & Li S (2010). Ecological network analysis of an urban energy metabolic system: Model development, and a case study of four Chinese cities. Ecological Modelling 221 (16): 1865-1879. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2010.05.006.
Fath BD & Mueller F (2010). Long-term ecosystem dynamics: Theoretical concepts of environmental change. In: Long-term Ecological Research: Between Theory and Application. Eds. Mueller, F., Baessler, C., Schubert, H. & Klotz, S., Berlin: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 978-90-481-8781-2 DOI:10.1007/978-90-481-8782-9_3.
Baird D, Fath BD, Ulanowicz RE, Asmus H, & Asmus R (2009). On the consequences of aggregation and balancing of networks on system properties derived from ecological network analysis. Ecological Modelling 220 (23): 3465-3471. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2009.09.008.
Hong M & Fath BD (2009). Measurement and Spatial Distribution of Urban Land Use Compactness in Chaoyang District of Beijing, China. IIASA Interim Report. IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria: IR-09-048
Scharler UM & Fath BD (2009). Comparing network analysis methodologies for consumer-resource relations at species and ecosystems scales. Ecological Modelling 220 (22): 3210-3218. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2009.02.011.
Lobanova G, Fath BD, & Rovenskaya E (2009). Exploring simple structural configurations for optimal network mutualism. Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation 14 (4): 1461-1485. DOI:10.1016/j.cnsns.2007.10.017.
Fath BD, Kryazhimskiy AV, Liljenstroem H, & Rovenskaya E (2008). Introduction: Towards the design of an integrated socio-environmental assessment model for the Baltic Sea region. In: Evolutionary Methods for Design, Optimization and Control. Eds. Neittaanmaki, P., Piriaux, J. & Tuovinen, T., Barcelona: CIMNE. ISBN 978-84-96736-45-0
Swanack TM, Grant WE, & Fath BD (2008). On the use of multi-species NK models to explore ecosystem development. Ecological Modelling 218 (3): 367-374. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2008.07.022.
Halnes G, Fath BD, & Liljenstroem H (2007). The modified niche model: Including detritus in simple structural food web models. Ecological Modelling 208 (1): 9-16. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2007.04.034.
Lobanova G & Fath BD (2007). Exploring Simple Structural Configurations for Optimal Network Mutualism. IIASA Interim Report. IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria: IR-07-021
Fath BD (2007). Complex Ecological Networks: Structural and Functional Regimes. Center for Complexity Research, University of Vermont; 29 October 2007, Burlington, Vermont, USA 
Fath BD (2007). Ecological Network Analysis: Measuring Cycling and Indirect Mutualism. Environmental Science Department, University of Maryland, USA 
Fath BD (2007). Ecological Network Analysis: Measuring Cycling and Indirect Mutualism. Environmental Science Department, University of Maryland; 7 September 2007, College Park, Maryland, USA 
Fath BD (2007). Ecological network analysis: Overview for application to BONUS. In: EUROGEN 2007, "Evolutionary and Deterministic Methods for Design, Optimization and Control with Applications to Industrial and Societal Problems", 11-13 June 2007.
Fath BD (2007). Ecosystem Networks: Cyclic Pathways and Indirect Mutualism. Beijing Normal University; 28 May 2007, Beijing, China 
Fath BD (2007). Identifying Ecological-Economic Relations Using Network Analysis. EcoSummit; 25 May 2007, Beijing, China 
Fath BD (2007). Marine ecological modelling and assessment of the Baltic Sea region. In: Symposium for Socio-environmental Modelling of Baltic Sea, 9-11 November 2007.
Fath BD (2007). Network Analysis of Critical Infrastructures: Methodology and Case Study of Natural Gas Pipeline. IIASA; 27 July 2007, Laxenburg, Austria 
Fath BD (2007). Network mutualism: Positive community-level relations in ecosystems. Ecological Modelling 208 (1): 56-67. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2007.04.021.
Fath BD & Killian MC (2007). The relevance of ecological pyramids in community assemblages. Ecological Modelling 208 (2): 286-294. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2007.06.001.
Rovenskaya E & Fath BD (2007). Conceptualizing integrated socioenvironmental models. In: Evolutionary Methods for Design, Optimization and Control.
Fath BD (2005). Ecosystem Patterns as a Guide for Sustainability. American Association for Advancement of Science (AAAS) Annual Meeting, Symposium on Science and Policy Transformations for Sustainability, 19 February 2005, Washington DC, USA
Fath BD (2005). Examining Ecosystem Dynamics Using Ecological Goal Functions. U.S. EPA Workshop on Dynamic Regimes, 10-11 March 2005, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA
Fath BD (2004). Control of Distributed Systems and Environmental Applications. Ecological Modelling 179 (2): 151-246.
Fath BD (2004). Control of distributed systems and environmental applications (Editorial). Ecological Modelling 179 (2): 151-152. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2004.06.002.
Fath BD, Cabezas H, & Pawlowski CW (2003). Regime changes in ecological systems: An information theory approach. Journal of Theoretical Biology: 517-530.
Jorgensen SE & Fath BD (2002). Toward a consistent pattern of ecosystem theories. In: 3rd International Workshop on Advances in Energy Studies: Reconsidering the Importance of Energy, 24-28 September 2002.
Patten BC & Fath BD (2002). A progressive definition of network storage aggradation. In: 3rd International Workshop on Advances in Energy Studies: Reconsidering the Importance of Energy, 24-28 September 2002.
Fath BD (1998). Analysis of Indirect Effects in a Hydrologic Model for Use in Determining Potential Primary Productivity. IIASA Interim Report. IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria: IR-98-008
Fath BD (1997). Network Utility Analysis: A Non-Thermodynamic Constraint to Trophic Transfer Efficiency. IIASA Interim Report. IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria: IR-97-047
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